Gaza, Alray - About 2.6m Palestinian Refugees live in Jordan. They form 60% of the original residents and according to UNRAWA statics, they are 1.639.718.
18% of the Palestinian refugees live in ten refugee camps in Jordan. Four camps, Jabal Al-Husein, Aman, Erbed, Al-Zarqa,were established in the east bank of the River Jordan after 1948 war.
The remained six emergency camps were constructed in 1967 in other cities and urban centers.
There are three communities in Amman, Alzarqaa, and Maadaba the Jordanian Government considered them as camps while UNRWA says they are unregistered.
In 1948, 100,000 refugees crossed the River Jordan, and found shelters in makeshift camps, mosques, schools in towns and villages.
International organizations, mainly the International Committee of the Red Cross, provided the camps with emergency assistance until May, 1950 when UNRWA took over the mission .
Refugees were housed in tents until late 1950s when UNRWA replaced them with more durable brick houses.
Emergency camps in 1967
In 1967, in the wake of occupying the West Bank and Gaza Strip, there was another wave of emigration to Jordan. Nearly 140,000 refugees registered as refugees in UNRWA in addition to the 240,000 refugees in the West Bank who became "displaced" (as the West Bank was under Jordan administration between 1948 and 1967).
All the camps in Jordan were crowded with refugees, and there are no space for building more houses.
Zarqa Refugee Camp:
It is the first camp established by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). It was set up near the city of Zarqa in 1949. The camp mainly accommodated 8,000 refugees on 0.182 kilometers.
Then, UNRWA worked to replace the original tents with more durable housing.
The camp today is one of the urban suburbs in Zarqa. It has a population of more than 20.000 and has 4 schools and two medical centers.
Jabal Al-Hussein camp:
The camp was established in 1952 to house 8,000 refugees on 0.42 square kilometers north-western Amman.
Refugees replaced the original tents with more durable housing while UNRWA provided it with roofs.
Since then, the camp has grown to become a semi-urban area.
The population of the camp reached more than 29,000 registered refugees. UNRWA runs 12 buildings inside the camp to provide services to refugees.
Amman New Refugee Camp:
Amman New Camp is locally known as Al-Wehdat Camp, founded in 1955 on an area of 0.482 kilometers south-eastern Amman.
Refugees were housed initially in 1,400 homes built by UNRWA, and in 1957 it had built 1,260 extra houses.
Over years, refugees constructed more rooms to improve their houses. The camp developed and became a suburb surrounded by urban areas with high population density.
More than 51,000 refugees lived in this camp. It has 13 schools and a medical center.
Irbid Refugee Camp:
It was established in 1951 on an area of 0.242 kilometers near Irbid in northern Jordan.
The camp houses 4,000 refugees.
In 1954, refugees replaced tents with mud shelters. UNRWA provided houses with roofs, and then replaced them with concrete shelters to emulate some urban neighborhoods in Irbid.
It has a population of more than 25,000 refugees. It has two medical centers and four two-shift schools.
It is one of six emergency camps, established in 1968 to accommodate Palestinian refugees and the displaced who left the West Bank and the Gaza Strip in 1967 war.
The camp, which is considered the largest in Jordan, is located 20 kilometers to the north of Amman. It contains 5,000 tents for 26,000 refugees over an area of 1.42 kilometers.
Between 1969 and 1971, UNRWA has replaced the tents with 8,000 houses to protect people from harsh winter conditions .
The camp houses more than 104,000 registered refugees. It contains16 schools and two medical centres.
The camp is 80 kilometers to the north of Amman. refugees live in tents on an area of 0.77 square kilometers.
The camp is 80 kilometers to the north of Amman. Refugees live in tents on an area of 0.772 kilometers.
Marka refugee camp:
Marka Camp known as Hittin Camp was established in 1968 on an area of 0.922 kilometers and at a distance of 10 kilometers north-eastern Amman.
The camp was named after the German Rehabilitation Centre, which was established in the camp.
The majority of residents came from the Gaza Strip.
It houses more than 53,000 and contains two schools and a health center.
Sawf Refugee Camp:
It was established in 1967. The camp covers an area of 0.52 kilometers near the famous Jerash Roman ruins, 50 kilometers to the north of Amman.
The camp was evacuated in October 1967 due to the extreme weather conditions . Refugees moved to a camp of tents in the Jordan Valley.
It was temporarily evacuated in 1968 after escalating military operations in the region, leading refugees to return to Sawf Camp.
The camp has a population of 20,000. It contains four double-shift schools.
Altalbia Refugee Camp
It was established to accommodate 5,000 refugees and the displaced who left the West Bank and Gaza Strip during 1967 war.
Its residents are originally displaced Bedouin.
It covers an area of 0.132 kilometers, 35 kilometers to the south of Amman. It is the largest camp in Jordan.
It has a population of 7,000 and has four schools, and a health centre.
Jerash refugee camp
The camp was established as an emergency camp in 1968 to house 11,500 Palestinian refugees and the displaced who left the Gaza Strip because of the Israeli war in 1967.
It is known locally as Gaza camp.
The camp covers an area of 0.752 kilometers. It is located just five kilometers from the famous Roman ruins in Jerash . After 1967 1,500 tents were replaced with houses.
Between 1968-1971, about 2,000 houses were built by emergency donors. Several zinc and asbestos roofs, which is dangerous as it may cause cancer, are still existed .
More than 24,000 registered refugees live in the camp. It includes four double-shift schools , and a health center.
Continuous wars led to displacing many residents to Jordan causing number of refugees increased.